We use molecular approaches to conducted research addressing issues on the systematics of the native Hawaiian flora. Studies involve phylogenetic questions of species biogeography in the islands both in terms of from where they came from and how they are distributing among the islands. Studies utilize molecular markers to answer these questions, and the type of markers will depend upon the specific question being asked. Also of importance in studying plants, especially in Hawaii, is the consequences of small population sizes. Hawaii is the "Endangered Species Capital of the United State" with over 300 endangered plant species and many others that are "species of concern" by the US Fish & Wildlife Service. As such, the opportunities to examine rare plant population genetics from many different perspectives are incredible.